During the testimony, Manafort did not stare Gates down as he did on Monday.
A day after testifying against longtime boss Paul Manafort, Rick Gates returned to the witness stand Tuesday as the government's star witness in the financial fraud trial of President Donald Trump's former campaign chairman. Manafort, 69, meanwhile, is facing 18 felony charges that could carry a maximum of 30 years in prison.
Gates faces five to 10 years in prison after pleading guilty in February to one count of conspiracy against the United States and one count of lying to an Federal Bureau of Investigation agent.
Speaking at Manafort's trial late that afternoon, Gates bluntly answered the prosecutor's questions.
Manafort disliked paying a lot of taxes, Gates said.
In early testimony Tuesday, Gates related his role in setting up offshore bank accounts for Manafort, a complex arrangement that was requested by wealthy and powerful Ukrainian businessmen who bankrolled Manafort's political consulting work in the country. Prosecutors claim that information helped Manafort evade taxes on tens of millions of dollars in income and fraudulently obtain millions of dollars in bank loans.
But Ms Laporta's testimony raised the stakes for Mr Manafort, legal experts said.
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Undercutting Gates' credibility is the foundation of Manafort's defence.
"Were you involved in criminal activity when you worked for Paul Manafort?" asked a prosecutor.
Testifying under immunity, she was the first witness to admit she knew accounting manoeuvrers Mr Manafort and Mr Gates requested of her were wrong and could be crimes.
Gates's appearance in court marked a dramatic moment in the probe: the first visible case of a witness flipping, or turning on friends or colleagues in a case. But Gates pleaded guilty months later and agreed to co-operate in Mueller's investigation of Manafort, the only American charged by the special counsel to opt for trial instead of a guilty plea. "Not an investment property", Manafort wrote in an email admitted by prosecutors.
Gates is expected to take more questions from prosecutors Tuesday morning, and then the defense's cross-examination is expected to take much, if not all, of the afternoon.
Manafort's attorneys have signaled they will seek to blame Gates and have accused him of embezzling millions of dollars from Manafort.
That second part is true - kind of.
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Gates testified that he and Manafort had 15 foreign accounts they did not report to the USA government, and knew that was illegal.
That's but a drop in the ocean of the roughly $30 million prosecutors are claiming Manafort hid from the IRS.
When one of the defense lawyers tried to suggest to Manafort's tax accountant Monday that Gates had kept Manafort in the dark about his own finances, the accountant, Cynthia Laporta, pushed back. Similar to prior witnesses, Laporta testified that Gates and Manafort were in lockstep but that Manafort was in charge.
Manafort claimed that one of his clients overseas owed him $2.4 million, and he wanted that amount added to the income he would report to the bank on his loan application to improve his chances of getting it approved.
"In most instances, it was clear that Mr. Manafort was aware what was going on", she testified.
Gates didn't respond to any of her emails asking for documents, contracts, and other communications about the alleged forthcoming payment.
Both were indicted last October for hiding millions of dollars they made lobbying for Ukrainian politicians. Ellis overruled the objection. Laporta said she had no indication that the loan from Deripaska had been paid off. But she noted that she couldn't imagine a scenario where she would have learned Gates was doing that.
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Throughout his testimony, Mr Gates largely avoided making eye contact with Mr Manafort, who appeared to be watching him.