Daesh has claimed responsibility for the attack.
Health ministry spokesman Wahid Majroh told AFP that 11 bodies had been taken to hospitals around the city along with 25 wounded, adding that that the toll could rise.
The blast occurred at 8:30pm on Thursday evening.
In a statement Thursday, President Ashraf Ghani called the attack "inhumane" and against the tenets of Islam.
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The attack happened near the U.S. Embassy where security personnel are reported to have been carrying out an operation against illegal drugs and alcohol.
Nasrat Rahimi, a deputy spokesperson at the Interior Ministry, said that civilians and members of the security forces were among the casualties.
Footage shown on Afghanistan's Tolo News showed men, purportedly shopkeepers, gathered on a street during the day, angrily denying they were bootleggers.
In the past few months the Taliban have also stepped up attacks.
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Kabul has suffered repeated suicide attacks in recent weeks.
The attack comes days after a suicide bomber killed at least 41 people and wounded more than 80 at a Shi'ite cultural centre in Kabul, underlining the precarious security situation in the Afghan capital.
US troops have remained in the country, although at greatly reduced numbers, helping to train and support Afghan forces in their battles against the militant groups.
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